1. Expert Advice
17th of May, 2024

Understanding The Role of Electrolytes

Understanding The Role of Electrolytes - Athena Nutrition

Understanding the role of electrolytes in maintaining hydration is important, especially for active women. Electrolytes, such as sodium, calcium, chloride, potassium, and magnesium, are essential minerals dissolved in body fluids. They play a vital role in conducting electrical currents necessary for muscle contraction, nerve function, and overall hydration. In this blog, we dive into the significance of electrolytes, the consequences of dehydration, and practical hydration strategies tailored to women's needs.

What are Electrolytes and Why are They Important?

Electrolytes are minerals that become charged particles, when dissolved in water. They are fundamental for not only fluid balance, but various bodily functions, including muscle and nerve function, oxygen transport, and immune response. Common electrolytes found in the body include sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and magnesium. These minerals work synergistically to ensure optimal physiological processes.

The Impact of Exercise on Electrolyte Balance and Hydration

During physical activity, especially in high-intensity or prolonged activities, individuals lose electrolytes through sweat. Sodium, potassium, and chloride are among the primary electrolytes lost during sweating, with sodium being particularly significant. Failure to replenish these electrolytes can lead to muscle cramps, fatigue, impaired heat dissipation from the body and therefore decreased performance.

Fluids are one of the most important things to replace during exercise. Water helps us maintain blood volume and our core body temperature. Our blood delivers essential nutrients to our muscles while also removing waste produced during exercise. Additionally, our bodies use water to cool us down through sweating. When we sweat during exercise, dehydration can occur if we don't replace this fluid.

Losing just 2% of body weight through sweat can significantly impact performance. Dehydration increases heart rate, perceived exertion, and mental fatigue while decreasing concentration and decision-making ability. Women are more susceptible to cognitive declines due to hydration. Physical symptoms of dehydration can be dark urine colour (similar to apple juice), headaches, reduced urine output and daily weight fluctuations above 1%. Becoming dehydrated during or after exercise can also increase the risk of feeling nauseous, having gastro-intestinal problems or diarrhoea.

The Role of Sodium and Other Electrolytes in Hydration

Sodium plays a crucial role in maintaining hydration by stimulating thirst and enhancing fluid retention. It also improves the taste of beverages, making it easier to stay hydrated. Other electrolytes like Potassium are also important because it promotes muscle contraction. Drinks containing electrolytes may make it easy to replace these electrolytes lost in sweat, which is even more important if you are a salty sweater.

Unique Considerations for Women

Women face specific challenges in maintaining hydration, including poorer heat acclimation, meaning we are less efficient sweaters. We also tend to sweat less overall when compared to men and are more prone to feeling the effect of heat when exercise begins. During the mid luteal phase (in between the ovulation and menstrual bleeding) body core temperature is higher which can also contribute to lower sweat efficiency.

Women are more affected by dehydration then men, meaning potential to effect performance is greater. Interestingly, research has shown that women have a tendency to overdrink fluids which can lead to low sodium (known as hyponatremia). This demonstrates how important it is to get on top of our hydration strategies.

Hydration Strategies

Women can effectively hydrate through various methods. These methods include consuming water, pairing it with salty foods, or choosing electrolyte supplements or sports drinks. Determining the most suitable option often depends on individual preferences and needs since there's no one-size-fits-all approach. Thirst serves as a reliable indicator of how much fluid you should be drinking. It's important to start exercising while already hydrated and replace lost fluids during and after exercise, being mindful not to overhydrate. Monitoring urine colour is a good way to assess hydration status, with the goal of aiming for a pale yellow colour.

While water intake is crucial, excessive consumption can lead to electrolyte imbalances or disrupt sleep patterns due to frequent urination. Therefore, it's potentially beneficial for women to integrate electrolytes and sodium-rich foods into their diets. This approach not only optimizes hydration but also enhances overall performance.


Electrolytes play a vital role in maintaining hydration and supporting optimal bodily functions, particularly for active women. Understanding individual hydration needs and the impact of exercise and dehydration is important for performance and overall well-being. By incorporating strategic hydration practices, such as utilization of electrolyte drinks, women can effectively replenish lost fluids and minimise the risk of dehydration-related complications. Remember, there's no one-size-fits-all approach to hydration, so listen to your body's cues and adjust your strategy accordingly for optimal results.